Publications
Pampuscenko K, Morkuniene R, Sneideris T, Smirnovas V, Budvytyte R, Valincius G, Brown GC, Borutaite V (2019)
Extracellular tau induces microglial phagocytosis of living neurons in cell cultures. J Neurochem. e14940.

Cockram TOJ, Puigdellívol M, Brown GC (2019)
Calreticulin and Galectin-3 Opsonise Bacteria for Phagocytosis by Microglia. Front Immunol. 10:2647.

Allendorf DH, Puigdellívol M, Brown GC (2019)
Activated microglia desialylate their surface, stimulating complement receptor 3-mediated phagocytosis of neurons. Glia. Nov 27.

Carrillo-Jimenez A, Deniz Ö, Niklison-Chirou MV, Ruiz R, Bezerra-Salomão K, Stratoulias V, Amouroux R, Yip PK, Vilalta A, Cheray M, Scott-Egerton AM, Rivas E, Tayara K, García-Domínguez I, Garcia-Revilla J, Fernandez-Martin JC, Espinosa-Oliva AM, Shen X, St George-Hyslop P, Brown GC, Hajkova P, Joseph B, Venero JL, Branco MR, Burguillos MA (2019)
TET2 Regulates the Neuroinflammatory Response in Microglia. Cell Rep. 29:697-713.e8.

Brown GC (2019)
The endotoxin hypothesis of neurodegeneration. J Neuroinflammation. 16:180.

Boza-Serrano A, Ruiz R, Sanchez-Varo R, García-Revilla J, Yang Y, Jimenez-Ferrer I, Paulus A, Wennström M, Vilalta A, Allendorf D, Davila JC, Stegmayr J, Jiménez S, Roca-Ceballos MA, Navarro-Garrido V, Swanberg M, Hsieh CL, Real LM, Englund E, Linse S, Leffler H, Nilsson UJ, Brown GC, Gutierrez A, Vitorica J, Venero JL, Deierborg T (2019)
Galectin-3, a novel endogenous TREM2 ligand, detrimentally regulates inflammatory response in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 138:251-273.

Métayer LE, Brown RD, Carlebur S, Burke GAA, Brown GC (2019)
Mechanisms of cell death induced by arginase and asparaginase in precursor B-cell lymphoblasts. Apoptosis 24, 145-156.

Carrillo-Jimenez A, Puigdellívol M, Vilalta A, Venero JL, Brown GC, StGeorge-Hyslop P, Burguillos MA (2018)
Effective Knockdown of Gene Expression in Primary Microglia With siRNA and Magnetic Nanoparticles Without Cell Death or Inflammation. Front Cell Neurosci. 12:313.

Fricker M, Tolkovsky AM, Borutaite V, Coleman M, Brown GC (2018) Neuronal Cell Death. Physiol Rev. 98:813-880.

Nomura K, Vilalta A, Allendorf DH, Hornik TC, Brown GC (2017) Activated Microglia Desialylate and Phagocytose Cells via Neuraminidase, Galectin-3, and Mer Tyrosine Kinase. J Immunol. 198:4792-4801.

Métayer LE, Vilalta A, Burke GAA, Brown GC (2017) Anti-CD47 antibodies induce phagocytosis of live, malignant B cells by macrophages via the Fc domain, resulting in cell death by phagoptosis. Oncotarget 8:60892-60903.

Yip PK, Carrillo-Jimenez A, King P, Vilalta A, Nomura K, Chau CC, Egerton AM, Liu ZH, Shetty AJ, Tremoleda JL, Davies M, Deierborg T, Priestley JV, Brown GC, Michael-Titus AT, Venero JL, Burguillos MA (2017) Galectin-3 released in response to traumatic brain injury acts as an alarmin orchestrating brain immune response and promoting neurodegeneration. Sci Rep. 7:41689.

Vilalta A, Brown GC (2018) Neurophagy, the phagocytosis of live neurons and synapses by glia, contributes to brain development and disease. FEBS J. 285, 3566-75.

Brown GC, St George-Hyslop PH (2017) Deciphering microglial diversity in Alzheimer's disease. Science 356:1123-1124.

Neniskyte U, Fricker M, Brown GC (2016) Amyloid β induces microglia to phagocytose neurons via activation of protein kinase Cs and NADPH oxidase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 81:346-355.

Hornik TC, Vilalta A, Brown GC (2016) Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis. J Cell Sci. 129:65-79.

Brown GC, Vilalta A, Fricker M (2015) Phagoptosis - Cell Death By Phagocytosis - Plays Central Roles in Physiology, Host Defense and Pathology. Curr Mol Med. 15:842-51.

Brown GC, Vilalta A (2015) How microglia kill neurons. Brain Res. 1628, 288-97.

Michael T Heneka, Monica J Carson, Joseph El Khoury, Gary E Landreth, Frederic Brosseron, Douglas L Feinstein, Andreas H Jacobs, Tony Wyss-Coray, Javier Vitorica, Richard M Ransohoff, Karl Herrup, Sally A Frautschy, Bente Finsen, Guy C Brown, Alexei Verkhratsky, Koji Yamanaka, Jari Koistinaho, Eicke Latz, Annett Halle, Gabor C Petzold, Terrence Town, Dave Morgan, Mari L Shinohara, V Hugh Perry, Clive Holmes, Nicolas G Bazan, David J Brooks, Ste╠üphane Hunot, Bertrand Joseph, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Olga Garaschuk, Erik Boddeke, Charles A Dinarello, John C Breitner, Greg M Cole, Douglas T Golenbock, Markus P Kummer (2015). Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurology 14, 388-405.

Neher JJ, Neniskyte U, Hornik T & Brown GC (2014) Inhibition of UDP/P2Y6 purinergic signaling prevents phagocytosis of viable neurons by activated microglia in vitro and in vivo, Glia 62:1463-75.

Neniskyte U, Vilalta A, Brown GC (2014) Tumour necrosis factor alpha induced neuronal loss is mediated by microglial phagocytosis. FEBS Lett. 588:2952-6.

Vilalta A & Brown GC (2014) Deoxyglucose prevents neurodegeneration in culture by eliminating microglia. J Neuroinflammation. 11:58.

Hornik TC, Neniskyte U & Brown GC (2014) Inflammation induces Multinucleation of Microglia via PKC inhibition of Cytokinesis, generating highly phagocytic Multinucleated Giant Cells. J. Neurochem. 128, 650-661.

Neher JJ, Emmrich JV, Fricker M, Mander PK, Thery C, Brown GC (2013) Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:E4098-107.

Emmrich J. Hornik T Neher J & Brown GC (2013) Rotenone induces neuronal death by microglial phagocytosis of neurons. FEBS J. 280, 5030-5038.

Neniskyte U, Brown GC (2013) Lactadherin/MFG-E8 is essential for microglia-mediated neuronal loss and phagoptosis induced by amyloid β. J Neurochem. 126, 312-7.

Fricker M, Vilalta A, Tolkovsky AM, Brown GC (2013) Caspase inhibitors protect neurons by enabling selective necroptosis of inflamed microglia. J Biol Chem. 288, 9145-52.

Fricker M, Oliva-Martin MJ, Brown GC (2012) Primary phagocytosis of viable neurons by microglia activated with LPS or Abeta is dependent on calreticulin/LRP phagocytic signalling. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 13, 9.

Fricker M, Neher JJ, Zhao JW, Théry C, Tolkovsky AM, Brown GC (2012) MFG-E8 Mediates Primary Phagocytosis of Viable Neurons during Neuroinflammation. J Neurosci. 32, 2657-66.

Skemiene K, Rakauskaite G, Trumbeckaite S, Liobikas J, Brown GC, Borutaite V (2013) Anthocyanins block ischemia-induced apoptosis in the perfused heart and support mitochondrial respiration potentially by reducing cytosolic cytochrome c. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 45, 23-9.

Neniskyte U, Neher JJ, Brown GC. (2011) Neuronal death induced by nanomolar amyloid beta is mediated by primary phagocytosis of neurons by microglia. J Biol Chem. 286:39904-13.

Neher JJ, Neniskyte U, Zhao ZW, Bal-Price A, Tolkovsky AM & Brown GC (2011) Inhibition of microglial phagocytosis is sufficient to prevent inflammatory neuronal death. J. Immunol. 186, 4973-83.

Barauskaite J, Grybauskiene R, Morkuniene R, Borutaite V, Brown GC (2011) Tetramethylphenylenediamine protects the isolated heart against ischaemia-induced apoptosis and reperfusion-induced necrosis. Br J Pharmacol. 162:1136-42.

Brown GC (2010) The principle of sufficiency and the evolution of control: using control analysis to understand the design principles of biological systems. Biochem Soc Trans. 38:1210-4.

Brown RD, Burke GA, Brown GC (2009) Dependence of leukemic cell proliferation and survival on H2O2 and L-arginine. Free Radic Biol Med. 46:1211-20.

Thompson AJ, Mander PK, Brown GC. (2009) The NO donor DETA-NONOate reversibly activates an inward current in neurones and is not mediated by the released nitric oxide. Br J Pharmacol. 158:1338-43.

Borutaite V,  Morkuniene R, Arandarcikaite O, Jekabsone A, Barauskaite J &  Brown GC. (2009) Nitric oxide protects the heart from ischemia-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial damage via protein kinase G mediated blockage of permeability transition and cytochrome c release. Journal of Biomedical Science 2009, 16:70.

Brown GC & Radcliffe SA (2009) Does the end of life have to be hell? Soundings 42, 67-78.

Brown GC, Borutaite V (2007) Mitochondrial regulation of caspase activation by cytochrome oxidase and tetramethylphenylenediamine (TMPD) via cytosolic cytochrome C redox state. J Biol Chem. 282, 31124-30.

Jekabsone, A., Nehrer, J., Borutaite, V. & Brown, G. C. (2007) Nitric oxide from neuronal nitric oxide synthase sensitises neurons to hypoxia-induced death via competitive inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. J. Neurochem. 103, 346-356.

Jekabsone A, Mander PK, Tickler A, Sharpe M, Brown GC. (2006) Fibrillar beta-amyloid peptide Abeta1-40 activates microglial proliferation via stimulating TNF-alpha release and H2O2 derived from NADPH oxidase: a cell culture study. J Neuroinflammation. 3:24.

Borutaite, V., Hope, H., & Brown, G. C. (2006) Arachidonate and NADPH oxidase synergise with iNOS to induce death in macrophages: mechanisms of inflammatory degeneration. Pharmacol Rep. 58: 96-102.

Bal-Price, A., Garlton, J. & Brown, G. C. (2006) Nitric oxide stimulates PC12 cell proliferation via energy depletion. Nitric Oxide 14, 238-46.

Mander, P. K., Jekabsone, A. & Brown, G. C. (2006) Microglial proliferation is regulated by hydrogen peroxide from NADPH oxidase. J. Immunol. 176, 1046-52.

Borutaite, V. & Brown, G. C. (2006) S-nitrosothiol inhibition of mitochondrial complex I causes a reversible increase in mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1757, 562-6.

Kinsner, A., Monica Boveri, Lars Hareng, Stephanie Traub, Guy Brown, Sandra Coecke, Thomas Hartung and  Anna Bal-Price (2006) Highly purified lipoteichoic acid induced proinflammatory signalling in primary culture of rat microglia through Toll-like receptor 2: selective potentiation of nitric oxide production by muramyl dipeptide. J. Neurochem. 99, 596-607.

Mander, P., Borutaite, V., Moncada, S. & Brown G. C. (2005) Nitric oxide from glial iNOS sensitizes neurons to hypoxic death via mitochondrial respiratory inhibition. J. Neurosci. Res. 79, 208-215.

Borutaite, V., Moncada, S. & Brown, G. C. (2005) Nitric oxide from inducible nitric oxide synthase sensitizes the inflamed aorta to hypoxic damage via respiratory inhibition. Shock 23, 319-323.

Kinsner A, Pilotto V, Deininger S, Brown GC, Coecke S, Hartung T, Bal-Price A. (2005) Inflammatory neurodegeneration induced by lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by glia activation, nitrosative and oxidative stress, and caspase activation. J. Neurochem. 95, 1132-43.

Mander, P. K. & Brown, G.C. (2005) Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005, 2:20.

Jekabsone, A., Ivanoviene, L., Brown, G.C., Borutaite, V. (2003) Nitric oxide and calcium together inactivate mitochondrial complex I and induce cytochrome c release. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 35. 803-809.

Borutaite, V. & Brown, G. C. (2003) Nitric oxide induces apoptosis via hydrogen peroxide, but necrosis via energy and thiol depletion. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 35, 1457-68.

Jekabsone, A., Morkuniene, R., Brown, G.C., Borutaite, V. (2003) S-nitrosothiols, but not nitric oxide, induce cytochrome c release, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation in perfused heart via mitochondrial permeability transition. Biochem. Pharmacol. 66, 1513-20.

Yung, H-W., Bal-Price, A.K., Brown, G.C. & Tolkovsky A.M. (2004) Nitric oxide-induced cell death of cerebrocortical murine astrocytes is mediated through p53- and Bax-dependent pathways. J. Neurochem. 89, 812-21.

Borutaite, V., Jekabsone, A., Morkuniene, R., Brown, G.C. (2003) Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition prevents mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release and apoptosis induced by heart ischemia. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 35, 357-366.

Golde, S., Chandran, S., Brown, G. C. & Compston, A. (2002) Different pathways for iNOS-mediated toxicity in vitro dependent on neuronal maturation and NMDA receptor expression. J Neurochem. 82, 269-82.

Bal-Price, A., Moneer, Z. & Brown, G. C. (2002) Nitric oxide induces rapid, calcium-dependent release of vesicular glutamate and ATP from cultured rat astrocytes.  Glia 40, 312-323.

Bal-Price, A. & Brown, G. C. (2002) Stimulation of the NADPH oxidase in activated rat microglia removes nitric oxide but induces peroxynitrite production. J. Neurochem. 80, 73-80.

Stewart VC, Heslegrave AJ, Brown GC, Clark JB, Heales SJ. (2002) Nitric oxide-dependent damage to neuronal mitochondria involves the NMDA receptor. Eur J Neurosci. 15, 458-464.

Borutaite, V. & Brown, G. C. (2001) Caspases are reversibly inactivated by hydrogen peroxide. FEBS Lett. 500, 114-8.

Bal-Price, A. & Brown, G. C. (2001) Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide from activated glia, inhibiting neuronal respiration, causing glutamate release and excitoxicity. J. Neuroscience 21, 6480-6491.

Borutaite, V., Budriunaite, A., Morkuniene, R. & Brown, G. C. (2001) Release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of cytosolic caspases induced by mycocardial ischaemia. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1537, 101-109.

Borutaite, V., Matthias, A., Harris, H., Moncada, S. & Brown, G. C. (2001) Reversible inhibition of cellular respiration by nitric oxide in vascular inflammation. Am. J. Physiol. 281, H2256-H2260.

Kholodenko, B.N., Brown, G.C, Hoek, J.B. Diffusion control of protein phosphorylation flux in signal transduction pathways. Biochem. J. (2000), 530, 901-907.

Bal-Price, A. & Brown, G. C. (2000) Nitric oxide induced necrosis and apoptosis in PC12 cells mediated by mitochondria. J. Neurochem. 75, 1455-1464.

Borutaite, V., Budriunaite, A. & Brown, G. C. (2000) Reversal of nitric oxide-, peroxynitrite- and S-nitrosothiol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration or complex I activity by light and thiols. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1459,405-412.

Borutaite, V., Morkuniene, R. & Brown, G. C. (2000) Nitric oxide donors, nitrosothiols and mitochondrial respiration inhibitors induce caspase activation by different mechanisms. FEBS Lett. 467, 155-159.

Brown, G. C. & Kholodenko, B. N. (1999) Spatial gradients of cellular phospho-proteins. FEBS Lett. 457, 452-454.

McBride, A. G., Borutaite, V. & Brown, G. C. (1999) Superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide cause rapid nitric oxide breakdown, peroxynitrite production and subsequent cell death. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1454, 275-288.

Borutaite, V., Morkuniene, R. & Brown, G. C. (1999) Release of cytochrome c from heart mitochondria is induced by high calcium and peroxynitrite and is responsible for calcium-induced inhibition of substrate oxidation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1453, 41-48.

Clementi, E., Brown, G. C., Foxwell, N. & Moncada, S. (1999) On the mechanism by which vascular endothelial cells regulate their oxygen consumption. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 1559-1562.

McNaught, K. St. P. & Brown, G. C. (1998) Nitric oxide causes glutamate release from brain synaptosomes following inhibition of mitochondrial function. J. Neurochem. 70, 1541-1546.

Clementi, E., Brown, G. C., Feelisch, M. & Moncada, S. (1998) Persistent inhibition of cell respiration by nitric oxide: Crucial role of S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial complex I and protective action of glutathione. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95, 7631-7636.

Soboll, S., Oh, M-H. & Brown, G. C. (1998) Control of oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, ureagenesis and ATP turnover in isolated perfused rat liver analysed by top-down metabolic control analysis. Eur. J. Biochem. 254, 194-201.

Kholodenko, B. N., Hoek, J. B., Brown, G. C. & Westerhoff, H. V. (1998) Control analysis of cellular signal transduction pathways. In: BioThermoKinetics in the Post Genomic Era (Larsson, C et al. eds.) Chalmers Reproservice, Gotenberg.

Brown, G. C. (1998) Evolutionary implications of metabolic control analysis for maximisation of rates of enzymes, pathways and physiological processes by natural selection. In: BioThermoKinetics in the Post Genomic Era (Larsson, C et al. eds.) Chalmers Reproservice, Gotenberg.

Korzeniewski, B. & Brown, G. C. (1998) Quantification of the relative contribution of parallel pathways to signal transfer: application to cellular energy transduction.  Biophysical Chemistry 75, 73-80.

Brown, G. C., Foxwell, N. & Moncada, S. (1998) Transcellular regulation of cell respiration by nitric oxide generated by activated macrophages.  FEBS Lett.439, 321-324.

Brown, G. C., Hoek, J. B. & Kholodenko, B. N. (1997) Why do protein kinase cascades have more than one level? Trends Biochem. Sci. 22, 288.

Kholodenko, B. N., Hoek, J. B., Westerhoff, H. V. & Brown, G. C. (1997) Quantification of information transfer via cellular signal transduction pathways.  FEBS Lett. 414, 430-434.

McBride, A. G. & Brown, G. C. (1997) Activation of human neutrophils causes rapid nitric oxide breakdown. FEBS Lett. 417, 231-234.

Penrice, J., Lorek, A., Cady, E. B., Amess, P. N., Wylezinska, M., Cooper, C. E., D'Souza, P., Brown, G. C., Kirkbride, V., Edwards, A. D., Wyatt, J. S. & Reynolds, E. O. R. (1997) Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain during acute hypoxia-ischemia and delayed cerebral energy failure in the newborn piglet Pediatr. Res. 41, 795-802.

Borutaite, V., Morkuniene, R., Budriunaite, A., Krasauskaite, D., Ryselis, S., Toleikis, A. & Brown, G. C. (1996) Kinetic analysis of changes in activity of heart mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system induced by ischaemia. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 28, 2195-2201.

Mildaziene, V., Baniene, R., Nauciene, Z., Marcinkeviciute, A., Borutaite, V., Kholodenko, B. & Brown, G. C. (1996) Ca2+ stimulates both respiratory and phosphorylation subsystems in heart mitochondria. Biochem. J. 320, 329-334.

Kholodenko, B. N. & Brown, G. C. (1996) Paradoxical control properties of enzymes within pathways: can activation cause an enzyme to have increased control? Biochem. J. 314, 753-760.

Borutaite, V. & Brown, G. C. (1996) Mitochondria rapidly reduce nitric oxide, and nitric oxide reversibly inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Biochem. J. 315, 295-299.

Brown, G.C. (1996) Information transfer via energy transducing pathways: Control of ATP turnover by ATP production. In: BioThermoKinetics of the Living Cell (eds H.V. Westerhoff et al.) pp. 71-74.

Kholodenko, B.N. & Brown, G.C. (1996) Extension of metabolic control analysis to physiology: control by body organs in vivo. In BioThermoKinetics of the Living Cell (eds H.V. Westerhoff et al.) pp. 163-167.

Mildaziene, V., Baniene, R., Nauciene, Z., Baker, B. M., Brown, G. C., Westerhoff, H. V. & Kholodenko, B. N. (1995) Calcium indirectly increases